Examining Fibers

Wherein we examine spinning fibers and their preparation for spinning, with a particular emphasis on the preparation of flax and fleece. We also will look at spinning tools through history and their use. Here are some relevant articles:


Experiments in Textile Archaeology

Archaeological Textiles - A Need for New Methods of Analysis and Reconstruction

Maria Cybulska, Jerzy Maik (2007) Archaeological Textiles - A Need for New Methods of Analysis and Reconstruction, Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe 15(5), p. 185-189, pdf

Egejskie techniki tkackie w epoce brązu . Zastosowanie archeologii eksperymentalnej w badaniach nad włókiennictwem egejskim Spis treści

Agata Ulanowska (2013) Egejskie techniki tkackie w epoce brązu . Zastosowanie archeologii eksperymentalnej w badaniach nad włókiennictwem egejskim Spis treści, p. 1-373

Experimental Textile archaeology – a link to the past?

Eva Birgitta Andersson Strand (2016) Experimental Textile archaeology – a link to the past?, Traditional Textile Craft - an Intangible Cultural Heritage?, E. Ebert, C.; Harlow, M.; Bjerregaard, L.; Andersson Strand (ed.), p. 1-12

From Flax to Linen: Experiments with flax at Ribe Viking Centre

Bo Ejstrud, Stina Andresen, Amanda Appel, Sara Gjerlevsen, Birgit Thomsen (2011) From Flax to Linen: Experiments with flax at Ribe Viking Centre, Bo Ejstrud (ed.), p. 1-86, Esbjerg: Ribe Viking Centre & University of Southern Denmark, pdf

Handicraft knowledge applied to archaeological textiles

Lena Hammarlund (2005) Handicraft knowledge applied to archaeological textiles, Nordic Textile Journal, p. 87-120

Old textiles - New possibilities

Eva Andersson Strand, Karin Margarita Frei, Margarita Gleba, Ulla Mannering, Marie Louise Nosch, Irene Skals (2010) Old textiles - New possibilities, European Journal of Archaeology 13(2), p. 149-173, doi:10.1177/1461957110365513

Reconstruction of Archaeological Textiles

Maria Cybulska (2010) Reconstruction of Archaeological Textiles, Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe 18(3), p. 100-105

Technical Report Experimental Archaeology Part 1 Spinning Wool, 2005-2006

Linda Mårtensson, Eva Andersson, Marie-louise Nosch, Anne Batzer (2006) Technical Report Experimental Archaeology Part 1 Spinning Wool, 2005-2006

Technical Report Experimental Archaeology Part 2-1 Spinning Flax, 2006

Linda Mårtensson, Eva Andersson, Marie-louise Nosch, Anne Batzer (2006) Technical Report Experimental Archaeology Part 2-1 Spinning Flax, 2006, p. 18 pp.

Technical Report Experimental Archaeology Part 2-2 Whorl or Bead, 2006

Linda Mårtensson, Eva Andersson, Marie-louise Nosch, Anne Batzer (2006) Technical Report Experimental Archaeology Part 2-2 Whorl or Bead, 2006

Technical Report Experimental Archaeology Part 3 Loom weights, 2007

Linda Mårtensson, Eva Andersson, Marie-louise Nosch, Anne Batzer (2006) Technical Report Experimental Archaeology Part 3 Loom weights, 2007, p. 1-17

Technical Report Experimental Archaeology Part 4 Spools, 2007

Linda Mårtensson, Eva Andersson, Marie-louise Nosch, Anne Batzer (2007) Technical Report Experimental Archaeology Part 4 Spools, 2007, p. 1-16

Textile Techniken und die Experimentelle Archäologie

Karina Grömer, Ingrid Schrierer (2005) Textile Techniken und die Experimentelle Archäologie, p. 1-27

Textile appearance and visual impression – Craft knowledge applied to archaeological textiles

Lena Hammarlund, Katherine Vestergaard Pedersen (2005) Textile appearance and visual impression – Craft knowledge applied to archaeological textiles, Archäologische Textilfunde— Archaeological Textiles: Braunwald, 18.–21. Mai 2005, NESAT 9, p. 213–19, pdf

Textile standards in experimental archaeology

Krista Vajanto (2014) Textile standards in experimental archaeology, Monographs of the Archaeological Society of Finland 3, p. 62-75, pdf

Tools and Textiles - Texts and Contexts Examination of spinning and weaving samples

Susan Möller-Wiering (2006) Tools and Textiles - Texts and Contexts Examination of spinning and weaving samples, Tools and Textiles - Texts and Contexts, p. 1-24

Understanding woollen cloth production through reconstructions : a case study from Shetland

Carol Christiansen, Lena Hammarlund, Martin Ciszuk (2014) Understanding woollen cloth production through reconstructions : a case study from Shetland, Monographs of the Archaeological Society of Finland 3, p. 54-61, pdf


Hand Spindles & Spinning

On early metallurgy and textile-production technologies in the southern Levant: a response to Langgut et al. (2016)

Erez Ben-Yosef, Orit Shamir, Janet Levy (2017) On early metallurgy and textile-production technologies in the southern Levant: a response to Langgut et al. (2016) , Antiquity 91(357), p. 765-776, doi:10.15184/aqy.2017.27

An exploration of prehistoric spinning technology: Spinning efficiency and technology transition

E. J. Tiedemann, K. A. Jakes (2006) An exploration of prehistoric spinning technology: Spinning efficiency and technology transition, Archaeometry, doi:10.1111/j.1475-4754.2006.00257.x

Anglo-Norman and middle English terminology for spindle whorls

William Sayers (2008) Anglo-Norman and middle English terminology for spindle whorls, ANQ - Quarterly Journal of Short Articles Notes and Reviews 21(4), p. 7-11, doi:10.3200/ANQQ.21.4.7-11

Methods of handspinning in Egypt and Sudan

Grace M. Crowfoot (1931) Methods of handspinning in Egypt and Sudan, p. 1-51, Halifax: F. King & Sons Ltd., Printers

Spinning Yarns: The Archaeological Evidence for Hand Spinning and its Social Implications, c ad 1200–1500

Eleanor R. Standley (2016) Spinning Yarns: The Archaeological Evidence for Hand Spinning and its Social Implications, c ad 1200–1500, Medieval Archaeology 60(2), p. 266-299, url, doi:10.1080/00766097.2016.1221264

Spinning in the past and the present

Linda Olofsson (2014) Spinning in the past and the present, Traditional Textile Craft – An intangible Heritage?(March), p. 1-13

Technical Report Experimental Archaeology Part 1 Spinning Wool, 2005-2006

Linda Mårtensson, Eva Andersson, Marie-louise Nosch, Anne Batzer (2006) Technical Report Experimental Archaeology Part 1 Spinning Wool, 2005-2006

Technical Report Experimental Archaeology Part 2-1 Spinning Flax, 2006

Linda Mårtensson, Eva Andersson, Marie-louise Nosch, Anne Batzer (2006) Technical Report Experimental Archaeology Part 2-1 Spinning Flax, 2006, p. 18 pp.

Technical Report Experimental Archaeology Part 2-2 Whorl or Bead, 2006

Linda Mårtensson, Eva Andersson, Marie-louise Nosch, Anne Batzer (2006) Technical Report Experimental Archaeology Part 2-2 Whorl or Bead, 2006

Technical Report Experimental Archaeology Part 4 Spools, 2007

Linda Mårtensson, Eva Andersson, Marie-louise Nosch, Anne Batzer (2007) Technical Report Experimental Archaeology Part 4 Spools, 2007, p. 1-16

Textile Production Tools from the Excavations at Caere, 2012 - 2014

Irina Malakhova (2015) Textile Production Tools from the Excavations at Caere, 2012 - 2014, p. vii + 86 pp., url

The earliest Near Eastern wooden spinning implements

Dafna Langgut, Naama Yahalom-mack, Simcha Lev-yadun, Eitan Kremer, Micka Ullman, Uri Davidovich (2016) The earliest Near Eastern wooden spinning implements, Antiquity 90(352), p. 973-990, url, doi:10.15184/aqy.2016.99

Dafna Langgut, Naama Yahalom-Mack, Simcha Lev-Yadun, Eitan Kremer, Micka Ullman, Uri Davidovich (2016) The earliest Near Eastern wooden spinning implements, Antiquity 90(352), p. 973-990, doi:10.15184/aqy.2016.99

Tools and Textiles - Texts and Contexts Examination of spinning and weaving samples

Susan Möller-Wiering (2006) Tools and Textiles - Texts and Contexts Examination of spinning and weaving samples, Tools and Textiles - Texts and Contexts, p. 1-24

Weighing the evidence: Determining and contrasting the characteristics and functionality of loom weights and spindle whorls from the Garrison at Birka

Ida Thorin (2012) Weighing the evidence: Determining and contrasting the characteristics and functionality of loom weights and spindle whorls from the Garrison at Birka, url


Wool – Fiber

A question of scale: Material in cave ash from Arene Candide, Italy, was not textile || Wool fibres in cloth remains throw light on fleece evolution [2 Short Contributions]

Michael L. Ryder (1992) A question of scale: Material in cave ash from Arene Candide, Italy, was not textile || Wool fibres in cloth remains throw light on fleece evolution [2 Short Contributions], Circaea, The Journal of the Association for Environmental Archaeology 9(1), p. 5-7 || 7-9

Bronze Age wool: provenance and dye investigations of Danish textiles

Karin Margarita Frei, Ulla Mannering, Ina Vanden Berghe, Kristian Kristiansen (2017) Bronze Age wool: provenance and dye investigations of Danish textiles, Antiquity 91(357), p. 640-654, pdf, doi:10.15184/aqy.2017.64

Dressing Central European prehistory-the sheep's contribution An interdisciplinary study about archaeological textile finds and archaeozoology

Karina Grömer, Konstantina Saliari, For Erich Pucher (2018) Dressing Central European prehistory-the sheep's contribution An interdisciplinary study about archaeological textile finds and archaeozoology, Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, Serie A 120, p. 127-156

Fascinating Fullonum

Michael L. Ryder (1994) Fascinating Fullonum, Circaea, The Journal of the Association for Environmental Archaeology 11(1), p. 23-31

Fibre analysis of Late Iron Age, Early Medieval and modern Finnish wools

Krista Vajanto (2013) Fibre analysis of Late Iron Age, Early Medieval and modern Finnish wools, Fennoscandia Archaeologica 30, p. 81-94

Fleece Evolution in Domestic Sheep

Michael L. Ryder (1964) Fleece Evolution in Domestic Sheep, Nature 204, p. 555-559

From textiles to sheep: Investigating wool fibre development in pre-Roman Italy using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

Margarita Gleba (2012) From textiles to sheep: Investigating wool fibre development in pre-Roman Italy using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Journal of Archaeological Science 39(12), p. 3643-3661, Elsevier, url, doi:10.1016/j.jas.2012.06.021

Sheep wool in Bronze Age and Iron Age Europe

Antoinette Rast-Eicher, Lise Bender Jørgensen (2013) Sheep wool in Bronze Age and Iron Age Europe, Journal of Archaeological Science 40(2), p. 1224-1241, Elsevier Ltd, url, doi:10.1016/j.jas.2012.09.030

The Evolution of the Fleece

Michael L. Ryder (1987) The Evolution of the Fleece, Scientific American 256, p. 112-119

The Textile Revolution. Research into the Origin and Spread of Wool Production between the Near East and Central Europe

Cornelia Becker, Norbert Benecke, Ana Grabundžija, -Hans-Christian Küchelmann, Susan Pollock, Wolfram Schier, Chiara Schoch, Ingo Schrakamp, Britta Schütt, Martin Schumacher, -Hans-Christian Küchel-Mann -Susan Pollock (2016) The Textile Revolution. Research into the Origin and Spread of Wool Production between the Near East and Central Europe 6, p. 102-151, url

Untangling Wool: Fibre preparation for woollen threads in Dutch Early Bronze Age to Middle Iron Age

Jasmijn (Brechtje Chloë Margje) Nobelen (2016) Untangling Wool: Fibre preparation for woollen threads in Dutch Early Bronze Age to Middle Iron Age, p. 112 pp.


Flax & Other Bast Fibers

30,000 Years Old Wild Flax Fibers - Testimony for Fabricating Prehistoric Linen

Eliso Kvavadze, Ofer Bar-Yosef, Anna Belfer-Cohen, Elisabetta Boaretto, Nino Jakeli, Zinovi Matskevich, Tengiz Meshveliani (2009) 30,000 Years Old Wild Flax Fibers - Testimony for Fabricating Prehistoric Linen, Science 325(5946), p. 1359, doi:10.1126/science.1175404

A procedure for identifying textile bast fibres using microscopy: Flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute

Christian Bergfjord, Bodil Holst (2010) A procedure for identifying textile bast fibres using microscopy: Flax, nettle/ramie, hemp and jute, Ultramicroscopy 110(9), p. 1192-1197, Elsevier, url, doi:10.1016/j.ultramic.2010.04.014

Application of fungal complexes to improve flax dew-retting.

J Repečkienė, Z Jankauskienė (2009) Application of fungal complexes to improve flax dew-retting., Vagos 83(83), p. 63-71, url

Assessment of biological remains from excavations at a site to the rear of 26 Market Place, Bedale, North Yorkshire (site code: BED03)

John Carrott, Benjamin R Gearey, Allan Hall, Deborah Jaques, Kathryn Johnson, K Tracey Yates (2004) Assessment of biological remains from excavations at a site to the rear of 26 Market Place, Bedale, North Yorkshire (site code: BED03), Palaeoecology Research Services: PRS 11(March)

Between flax and fabric: Cultivation and processing of flax in a mediaeval peat reclamation settlement near midwoud (Prov. Noord Holland)

J. P. Pals, M. C. van Dierendonck (1988) Between flax and fabric: Cultivation and processing of flax in a mediaeval peat reclamation settlement near midwoud (Prov. Noord Holland), Journal of Archaeological Science 15(3), p. 237-251, doi:10.1016/0305-4403(88)90065-9

Cultivation and processing of Linum usitatissimum and Camelina sativa in southern Scandinavia during the Roman Iron Age

Mikael Larsson (2013) Cultivation and processing of Linum usitatissimum and Camelina sativa in southern Scandinavia during the Roman Iron Age, Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 22(6), p. 509-520, url, doi:10.1007/s00334-013-0413-3

Egyptian textiles and their production: ‘word’ and ‘object’

Maria Mossakowska-Gaubert (ed.) (2020) Egyptian textiles and their production: ‘word’ and ‘object’, p. 12 papers, 154 pages, Lincoln, Nebraska: Zea Books: Zea E-Books Collection. 86., url

Evidence for linseed cultivation before 6000 bc

University of Groningen) van Zeist, W. (Institute for Biological Archaeology, University of Groningen) Bakker-Heeres, J.A.H. (Institute for Biological Archaeology (1975) Evidence for linseed cultivation before 6000 bc, Journal of Archaeological Science 2(3), p. 215-219, doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-4403(75)90059-X

Evidence of the domestication history of flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) from genetic diversity of the sad2 locus

Robin G Allaby, Gregory W Peterson, David Andrew Merriwether, Yong-Bi Fu (2005) Evidence of the domestication history of flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) from genetic diversity of the sad2 locus, Theoretical and Applied Genetics 112(1), p. 58-65, url, doi:10.1007/s00122-005-0103-3

Factors of selection and quality of wood used for woodcraft in medieval Polish strongholds and early urban centres

Katarzyna Cywa, Agnieszka Wacnik, Maria Lityńska-Zajac (2018) Factors of selection and quality of wood used for woodcraft in medieval Polish strongholds and early urban centres, Acta Palaeobotanica 58(2), p. 231-287, doi:10.2478/acpa-2018-0013

Fascinating Fullonum

Michael L. Ryder (1994) Fascinating Fullonum, Circaea, The Journal of the Association for Environmental Archaeology 11(1), p. 23-31

Flachsanbau und Textil- herstellung in neolithischen Feuchtbodensiedlungen Südwestdeutschlands [Flax Cultivation and Textile Production in Neolithic Wetland Settlements in South-West Germany]

Ursula Maier (2013) Flachsanbau und Textil- herstellung in neolithischen Feuchtbodensiedlungen Südwestdeutschlands [Flax Cultivation and Textile Production in Neolithic Wetland Settlements in South-West Germany], NESAT XI: The North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles XI, 10-13 May 2011 in Esslingen am Neckar, Johanna Banck-Burgess, Carla Nübold (ed.), p. Poster session 15, Rahden, Westfalen: VML, Verlag Marie Leidorf

Flax Fibre Extraction Techniques in the Late Middle Ages

Martina König (2020) Flax Fibre Extraction Techniques in the Late Middle Ages, EXARC Journal 2020(2), p. 1-11, url

Flax Growing in late antique Egypt: evidence from the Aphrodito papyri

Isabelle Marthot-Santaniello (2020) Flax Growing in late antique Egypt: evidence from the Aphrodito papyri, Egyptian textiles and their production: ‘word’ and ‘object’ (Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine periods), Maria Mossakowska-Gaubert (ed.), p. 107-115, Lincoln, NE: Zea Books, url

Flax and Linen Terminology in Talmudic Literature

Nahum Ben-Yehuda (2017) Flax and Linen Terminology in Talmudic Literature, Textile Terminologies from the Orient to the Mediterranean and Europe, 1000 BC to 1000 AD, Salvatore Gaspa, Cécile Michel, Marie-Louise Nosch (ed.), p. 122-152, Lincoln, NE: Zea Books, doi:10.13014/k2vm49f3

Flax cultivation and textile production in Neolithic wetland settlements on Lake Constance and in Upper Swabia (south-west Germany)

Ursula Maier, Helmut Schlichtherle (2011) Flax cultivation and textile production in Neolithic wetland settlements on Lake Constance and in Upper Swabia (south-west Germany), Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 20(6), p. 567-578, url, doi:10.1007/s00334-011-0300-8

Flax fibre : Innovation and Change in the Early Neolithic A Technological and Material Perspective

Susanna Harris (2014) Flax fibre : Innovation and Change in the Early Neolithic A Technological and Material Perspective, Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings, p. 1-10, url

Flax for oil or fibre? Morphometric analysis of flax seeds and new aspects of flax cultivation in Late Neolithic wetland settlements in southwest Germany

Christoph Herbig, Ursula Maier (2011) Flax for oil or fibre? Morphometric analysis of flax seeds and new aspects of flax cultivation in Late Neolithic wetland settlements in southwest Germany, Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 20(6), p. 527-533, doi:10.1007/s00334-011-0289-z

Flax in Sweden: The archaeobotanical, archaeological and historical evidence

Karin Viklund (2011) Flax in Sweden: The archaeobotanical, archaeological and historical evidence, Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 20(6), p. 509-515, doi:10.1007/s00334-011-0325-z

Flax latitudinal adaptation at LuTFL1 altered architecture and promoted fiber production

Rafal M. Gutaker, Maricris Zaidem, Yong Bi Fu, Axel Diederichsen, Oliver Smith, Roselyn Ware, Robin G. Allaby (2018) Flax latitudinal adaptation at LuTFL1 altered architecture and promoted fiber production, Scientific Reports 9(1), p. 1-12, Nature Publishing Group, doi:10.1038/s41598-018-37086-5

Flax processing in the Neolithic and Bronze Age pile-dwelling settlements of eastern Switzerland

Ursula Leuzinger, Antoinette Rast-Eicher (2011) Flax processing in the Neolithic and Bronze Age pile-dwelling settlements of eastern Switzerland, Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 20(6), p. 535-542, doi:10.1007/s00334-011-0286-2

Flax seeds from Neolithic and Bronze Age pile-dwelling sites in Europe

Sabine Karg (2022) Flax seeds from Neolithic and Bronze Age pile-dwelling sites in Europe, Prahistorische Zeitschrift 97(1), p. 90-109, url, doi:10.1515/pz-2022-2036

Flax-growing in Orkney from the Norse period to the 18h century

J. M. Bond, J. R. Hunter (1987) Flax-growing in Orkney from the Norse period to the 18h century, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 117, p. 175-81

From Flax to Linen: Experiments with flax at Ribe Viking Centre

Bo Ejstrud, Stina Andresen, Amanda Appel, Sara Gjerlevsen, Birgit Thomsen (2011) From Flax to Linen: Experiments with flax at Ribe Viking Centre, Bo Ejstrud (ed.), p. 1-86, Esbjerg: Ribe Viking Centre & University of Southern Denmark, pdf

Genetic diversity of cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and its wild progenitor pale flax (Linum bienne Mill.) as revealed by ISSR markers

Hüseyin Uysal, Yong-Bi Fu, Orhan Kurt, Gregory W. Peterson, Axel Diederichsen, Peter Kusters (2010) Genetic diversity of cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and its wild progenitor pale flax (Linum bienne Mill.) as revealed by ISSR markers, Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 57(7), p. 1109-1119, doi:10.1007/s10722-010-9551-y

Geographic Patterns of RAPD Variation in Cultivated Flax

Yong-Bi Fu (2005) Geographic Patterns of RAPD Variation in Cultivated Flax, Crop Science 45(3), p. 1084-1091, url

Growing and Hand Processing Fibre Flax and Hemp for Hand Papermaking

Helmut Becker (2008) Growing and Hand Processing Fibre Flax and Hemp for Hand Papermaking, 2008 International Conference on Flax and Other Bast Plants, p. 150-158

Identification and retting efficiencies of fungi isolated from dew-retted flax in the United States and Europe.

Georgia 30604 Gunnar Henriksson, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 and Richard B. Russell Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Athens, Georgia 306042 Danny E. Akin, Richard B. Russell Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Athens, Georgia 30602 Richard T. Hanlin, Department of Plant Pathology, Universityof Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 Carmen Rodriguez, Department of Plant Pathology, Universityof Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30604 Douglas D. Archiboald, Richard B. Russell Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Athens, Georgia 30604 Luanne L. Rigsby, Richard B. Russell Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Athens, Georgia 30602 Karl-Erik L. Eriksson, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens (1997) Identification and retting efficiencies of fungi isolated from dew-retted flax in the United States and Europe., Appied and Environmental Microbiology 63(10), p. 3950-3956, pdf

International Trade and the Medieval Egyptian Countryside

A. L. Udovitch (1999) International Trade and the Medieval Egyptian Countryside, Proceedings of the British Academy: "Agriculture in Egypt: From Pharaonic to Modern Times" 96, A. K. Bowman, E. L. Rogan (ed.), p. 267-285, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pdf

Is Cross‐Section Shape a Distinct Feature in Plant Fibre Identification?

H. Lukesova, B. Holst (2021) Is Cross‐Section Shape a Distinct Feature in Plant Fibre Identification?, Archaeometry 63(1), p. 216-226, url, doi:10.1111/arcm.12604

Lessons on textile history and fibre durability from a 4,000-year-old Egyptian flax yarn

Alessia Melelli, Darshil U. Shah, Gemala Hapsari, Roberta Cortopassi, Sylvie Durand, Olivier Arnould, Vincent Placet, Dominique Benazeth, Johnny Beaugrand, Frédéric Jamme, Alain Bourmand (2021) Lessons on textile history and fibre durability from a 4,000-year-old Egyptian flax yarn, Nature Plants 7, p. 1200–1206, url, doi:https://doi-org.wrs.idm.oclc.org/10.1038/s41477-021-00998-8

Linen Textiles and Flax in Classical Greece: Provenance and Trade

Marie-Louise Nosch (2014) Linen Textiles and Flax in Classical Greece: Provenance and Trade, Textile Trade and Distribution in Antiquity, Kerstin Droß-Krüpe (ed.), p. 17-42, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag

Looms for Linen

Gertrud Grenander Nyberg (1994) Looms for Linen, Laborativ Arkeologi 7, p. 75-77

Microbiology of Flax Retting

Fred W. Tanner (1922) Microbiology of Flax Retting, Botanical Gazette 74(2), p. 174-185, url, doi:10.1086/333072

Nettle as a distinct Bronze Age textile plant

C. Bergfjord, U. Mannering, K. M. Frei, M. Gleba, A. B. Scharff, I. Skals, J. Heinemeier, M. L. Nosch, B. Holst (2012) Nettle as a distinct Bronze Age textile plant, Scientific Reports 2(664), p. 1-4, doi:10.1038/srep00664

North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles X

E Andersson Strand, M Gleba, U Mannering, C Munkholt, M Ringgaard (2010) North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles X, Archeologické rozhledy 48(3), p. 523, url

Notes on the Evolution and History of Linum

Hans Helbaek (1959) Notes on the Evolution and History of Linum, KUML 1959, p. 103-129, url

Novel Insight into the Intricate Shape of Flax Fibre Lumen

Emmanuelle Richely, Sylvie Durand, Alessia Melelli, Alexander Kao, Anthony Magueresse, Hom Dhakal, Tatyana Gorshkova, Franck Callebert, Alain Bourmaud, Johnny Beaugrand, Sofiane Guessasma (2021) Novel Insight into the Intricate Shape of Flax Fibre Lumen, Fibers 9(4), p. 1-17, url, doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/fib9040024

Oil-rich seeds from prehistoric contexts in southern Scandinavia – reflections on archaeobotanical records of flax, hemp, gold of pleasure, and corn spurrey

Sabine Karg (2012) Oil-rich seeds from prehistoric contexts in southern Scandinavia – reflections on archaeobotanical records of flax, hemp, gold of pleasure, and corn spurrey, Acta Palaeobotanica 52(1), p. 17-24, url

Paleoethnobotanical Report -- Çayönü 1972

Robert B. Stewart (1976) Paleoethnobotanical Report -- Çayönü 1972, Economic Botany 30(3), p. 219-225, pdf

Plant economy at a late Neolithic lake dwelling site in Slovenia at the time of the Alpine Iceman

Tjaša Tolar, Stefanie Jacomet, Anton Velušček, Katarina Čufar (2011) Plant economy at a late Neolithic lake dwelling site in Slovenia at the time of the Alpine Iceman, Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 20(3), p. 207-222, url, doi:10.1007/s00334-010-0280-0

Plant economy of the northern Alpine lake dwellings - 3500-2400 cal. BC

Stefanie Jacomet (2006) Plant economy of the northern Alpine lake dwellings - 3500-2400 cal. BC, Environmental Archaeology 11(1), p. 65-85, url, doi:10.1179/174963106x97061

Population-based resequencing revealed an ancestral winter group of cultivated flax: Implication for flax domestication processes

Yong Bi Fu (2012) Population-based resequencing revealed an ancestral winter group of cultivated flax: Implication for flax domestication processes, Ecology and Evolution 2(3), p. 622-635, pdf, doi:10.1002/ece3.101

Rapport: Identification des fibres

Christophe Moulherat, Youlie Spantidaki (2006) Rapport: Identification des fibres, p. 1-13

Retting pits for textile fibre plants at Danish prehistoric sites dated between 800 B.C. and A.D. 1050

Stina Troldtoft Andresen, Sabine Karg (2011) Retting pits for textile fibre plants at Danish prehistoric sites dated between 800 B.C. and A.D. 1050, Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 20(6), p. 517–526, doi:10.1007/s00334-011-0324-0

Seeking Nettle Textiles – Utilizing a Combination of Microscopic Methods for Fibre Identification

Jenni A. Suomela, Krista Vajanto, Riikka Räisänen (2018) Seeking Nettle Textiles – Utilizing a Combination of Microscopic Methods for Fibre Identification, Studies in Conservation 63(7), p. 412-422, Taylor and Francis Ltd., url, doi:10.1080/00393630.2017.1410956

Some Evidence for 12th- and 13th-Century Linen and Woollen Textile Processing

Mary C. Higham (1989) Some Evidence for 12th- and 13th-Century Linen and Woollen Textile Processing, Medieval Archaeology 33, p. 38-52

Technical Report Experimental Archaeology Part 2-1 Spinning Flax, 2006

Linda Mårtensson, Eva Andersson, Marie-louise Nosch, Anne Batzer (2006) Technical Report Experimental Archaeology Part 2-1 Spinning Flax, 2006, p. 18 pp.

Textile Production Tools From Viking Age Graves in Gotland, Sweden

Barbara K Klessig (2015) Textile Production Tools From Viking Age Graves in Gotland, Sweden, p. xii + 120 pp., url

Textile production and clothing.

Hero Granger-Taylor (2003) Textile production and clothing., Technology and tools in ancient Egypt. University College London, url

The Joint Prehistoric Project

Robert J Braidwood, Linda S Braidwood (1992) The Joint Prehistoric Project, Oriental Institute Annual Report, p. 40-43, pdf

The first plant bast fibre technology: identifying splicing in archaeological textiles

Margarita (Cambridge University) Gleba, Susanna (University of Glasgow) Harris (2019) The first plant bast fibre technology: identifying splicing in archaeological textiles, Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 11(5), p. 2329-2346, url, doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-018-0677-8

The use of local fibres for textiles at Neolithic Çatalhöyük

Antoinette Rast-Eicher, Sabine Karg, Lise Bender Jørgensen (2021) The use of local fibres for textiles at Neolithic Çatalhöyük, Antiquity 95(383), p. 1129-1144, pdf, doi:10.15184/aqy.2021.89

Tradition and transition : the technology and usage of plant-fibre textiles in Estonian rural areas in the 11th – 17th centuries

Riina Rammo (2014) Tradition and transition : the technology and usage of plant-fibre textiles in Estonian rural areas in the 11th – 17th centuries, Monographs of the Archaeological Society of Finland 3, p. 102-115, pdf

Variation of cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L. subsp.usitatissimum) and its wild progenitor pale flax (subsp. angustifolium (Huds.) Thell.)

Axel Diederichsen, Germany Hammer, K. Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, D-06466, Gatersleben (1995) Variation of cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L. subsp.usitatissimum) and its wild progenitor pale flax (subsp. angustifolium (Huds.) Thell.), Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 42(3), p. 263-272, doi:10.1007/BF02431261

Viking and early middle ages northern scandinavian textiles proven to be made with hemp

G. Skoglund, M. Nockert, B. Holst (2013) Viking and early middle ages northern scandinavian textiles proven to be made with hemp, Scientific Reports 3, p. 1-6, doi:10.1038/srep02686


Conflictus Ovis et Lini

Conflictus Ovis et Lini. A Model for the Owl and the Nightingale

Nicholas Jacobs (1994) Conflictus Ovis et Lini. A Model for the Owl and the Nightingale, Journal of the Spanish Society for Medieval English Language and Literature Revista de la Sociedad Española de Lengua y Literatura Inglesa Medieval 4, p. 7-19

Hermanni contracti conflictus ovis et lini

Moriz Haupt (1859) Hermanni contracti conflictus ovis et lini, Zeitschrift für deutsches Alterthum 11, p. 215-237, url

Promptorium Parvulorum Sive Clericorum, Dictionarius Anglo-Latinus Princeps.

Anglicus Galfridus (1865) Promptorium Parvulorum Sive Clericorum, Dictionarius Anglo-Latinus Princeps., Albertus Way (ed.), p. 1-563, Londini: Sumptibus Societatis Camdenensis, url


Archaeology of York Publications

Craft, Industry and Everyday Life: Finds from Anglo-Scandinavian York

A. J. Mainman, N. S. H. Rogers (2000) Craft, Industry and Everyday Life: Finds from Anglo-Scandinavian York, Archaeology of York - The Small Finds 17(14), p. 2451-2672, Published for York Archaeological Trust by the Council for British Archaeology

Craft, Industry and Everyday Life: Finds from Medieval York

Patrick Ottaway, Nicola Rogers (2002) Craft, Industry and Everyday Life: Finds from Medieval York, Archaeology of York - The Small Finds 17(15), p. 2728, pdf

Textile Production at 16 – 22 Coppergate The Archaeology of York

Penelope. Walton Rogers (1997) Textile Production at 16 – 22 Coppergate The Archaeology of York, Archaeology of York - The Small Finds 17(11), p. AY17-11 correct p.1771.pdf, Published for the York Archaeological Trust by Council for British Archaeology

Textiles, cordage and raw fibre from 16-22 Coppergate

Penelope Walton (1989) Textiles, cordage and raw fibre from 16-22 Coppergate, Archaeology of York - The Small Finds 17(5), p. 283-454


Textile Tools

Aspects of Gender and Craft Production in Early Anglo-Saxon England, with Particular Reference to the Kingdom of Kent

Susan Kay Harrington (2002) Aspects of Gender and Craft Production in Early Anglo-Saxon England, with Particular Reference to the Kingdom of Kent, p. 399 + 144 pp., url

Textile Production Tools From Viking Age Graves in Gotland, Sweden

Barbara K Klessig (2015) Textile Production Tools From Viking Age Graves in Gotland, Sweden, p. xii + 120 pp., url

The Early and Middle Bronze Age Textile Tools from the Aeolian Islands (Italy)

Katarzyna Żebrowska (2018) The Early and Middle Bronze Age Textile Tools from the Aeolian Islands (Italy), Fasciculi Archaeologiae Historicae, doi:10.23858/fah31.2018.001

The Unwound Yarn. Birth and Development of Textile Tools Between Levant and Egypt

Chiara Spinazzi-Lucchesi (2018) The Unwound Yarn. Birth and Development of Textile Tools Between Levant and Egypt, Antichistica Studi orientali 18(8), url

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